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Originally, these substances were only known as emulsifiers. However, as studies progressed, more functions were found and they began to be used in various fields, such as bread, ice cream and cake.

Nowadays, emulsifiers are applied to Japanese foods like tofu and minced fish products. Why do bread and tofu need emulsifiers? Generally speaking, an emulsifier is well known for its emulsifying effects, however, actually it has various functions and followings are just some examples: Modifies oil crystal and prevents water spattering in cooking; Destroys emulsion to stabilize foam and to make smooth texture in ice cream, and keeps its shape; Reacts with proteins to make a smooth easy-rising dough in bread; Acts on starch to make bread soft.

Oil and water produce emulsion by stirring, however, the emulsion starts to break down immediately after stirring is stopped. The purpose of emulsification is to stabilize emulsion state by preventing break down which occurs due to creaming aggregation and coalescence. To solve these issues, decreasing size of dispersed particles, reducing the density different of dispersion and protecting the surface of oil droplets are effective. These multiple type emulsions not only make low calorie items such as cream which contain less oil, but also stabilize the emulsion by dissolving the unstable substance present in the deepest region of water droplets.

Taste can also be enhanced by injecting seasonings and flavors into the water droplets. Water-insoluble fine powder like cocoa is difficult to disperse because small lumps tend to form on the surface of interface. Powders gradually aggregate and precipitate even after dispersing by shaking. Maintaining suspension of water-insoluble fine powder is called dispersion. When the dispersing material is liquid, we call it emulsion.

Food Emulsifier Application | Riken Vitamin

Emulsifier adsorbed on the surface of insoluble fine powder changes the particle surface to be hydrophilic or lipophilic. This results in producing water or fats and oils at the outer layer and stabilizing of suspension by an increase in the affinity to water or oil in the outer phase. Foaming ability is one of the major characteristics of emulsifiers.

Thus, a dilatant emulsion may flow easily if its container is simply tilted and the product is allowed to flow under the influence of gravity, but it will gel and not flow at all if an attempt is made to force the emulsion out by shaking it. Some dilatant emulsions resist high shear so strongly that they fracture into pieces when rubbed between the hands or upon a surface or when shaken vigorously in a container.

Once the high shear force is stopped and low shear, such as gravity reasserts, the fractured emulsion pieces will flow, as if melting. As one would expect, there are varying degrees of "dilatantcy". Thus, formulations can be made that will flow even when subjected to high shear, although their viscosity is higher than the "at rest" viscosity. Conversely, formulations are available that are stiff, non-flowing gels even when at rest. Example 3 shows flow characteristics that are typical of a very dilatant emulsion - in that it is a stiff emulsion that does not flow when at rest and fractures into crumb-like pieces when vigorously shaken in ajar.

Emulsions such as Examples 2 and 4 exhibit viscous flow and can be poured from a container, but they become very "rubbery" when prodded with a finger and they do not readily adhere to the finger making them difficult to "pick up" from a jar. Spreading these emulsions on the skin can also be problematic, as they will "ball up" when rubbed. So, at times, some persistence is required to apply them, but they do eventually spread and, as the emulsion looses water, they spread much more easily.

Interestingly, the dilatant emulsions made with the emulsifiers of the present invention, spread relatively easily on skin, because for whatever reason they appear to readily deposit the internal oil phase when rubbed upon the skin.


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The addition of alcohols, glycols, hydrotropes and other solvents can be used to modify the viscosity and rheology of these systems. Thus, the physical properties can be varied to suit specific needs. Also, other surfactants can be added to modify the ease with which an emulsion is formed and the rheology of the resulting emulsions or the intended use of the emulsion. Further, the emulsifier materials of this invention can be used to make emulsions with more typical oil phase concentrations, in which case, the emulsions have more typical properties but, they remain dilatant.

The type of oil that is emulsified can also be varied and includes, but is not limited to mineral oils, triglycerides, silicone based fluids, UV absorbers and polymers. Finally, materials such as viscosity controlling polymers, film forming polymers, slip and feel modifying ingredients, fragrances, preservatives, vitamins, medicaments and colorants can be added to modify the emulsions and vary their intended use. Some examples of these additions are described in the following examples.

The surfactant helps to solubilize the Disteareth IPDI which gels when it is placed in water by itself and becomes insoluble. In a separate experiment, it was found that the Coceth-7 Carboxylic acid alone did not make an emulsion. The emulsion formed immediately upon addition of the hot 0 C mineral oil to the hot 0 C water plus emulsifier mixture. The addition of the propylene glycol reduced the dilatantcy although not eliminating it.

This formulation would be suitable for a hand and body cream or for a hair pomade. In this instance, the. This surfactant is cationic and, in addition to helping to dissolve the Disteareth PDI, it also is a hair conditioner that improves the wet combability, and the static electricity control of the hair. In separate experiments, it was determined that the emulsion forms in the absence of the Soyamidopropyl Ethyldimonium Ethosulfate, but not in the absence of the Disteareth IPDI.

The mineral oil and the isostearate esters provide shine and manageability. This is a dilatant emulsion and provides a unique usage experience. This emulsion is dilatant and suitable for use as a hair styling aid or a hand cream. Note that the dimethicone concentration is very high. Further examples of high internal phase emulsions are given in the following Examples. The emulsion produced is a solid, non-flowing white emulsion that also resists flowing under high shear stress and has a characteristic "ring".

This is a dilatant, "rubbery" emulsion that also "rings" when tapped. This is a very dilatant, crumbly emulsion that "rings" when tapped and does not flow under the influence of gravity.

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Neither of these two materials made acceptable emulsions at 3. The limits on the emulsifying ability of these two materials appear to be due to the concentration of the emulsifier as can be seen in the next Example. This is a dilatant emulsion that also "rings" when tapped. The emulsion is quite stiff and crumbly. It also shows electrical conductivity indicating that the emulsion is oil-in-water. Example 13 shows the use of PEG- Distearate as an emulsifier for an emulsion containing a very high oil level.

It also conducts electricity showing it to be an oil-in-water emulsion. The emulsion is dilatant, but it is softer than Example 12, it is also not crumbly and does not ring when the container is tapped.

APPLICATION CONCEPTS

This emulsion is very dilatant and also rings. Example 15 shows a practical application of this technology in the form of a hair relaxer. The emulsion is a smooth, viscous flowing, dilatant, but non-ringing, white cream or heavy lotion that is suitable for packaging in a tube or jar. Thus, there is very little degradation of the formula over time or with elevated temperature storage. Example 2 Viscosity - Spindle 3 Viscosity Spindle 4 60, 1. Example 4 Viscosity - Spindle 3 Viscosity Spindle 4 67, 1.

Kind code of ref document : A2. Ref document number : Country of ref document : CA. Ref country code : DE. Country of ref document : EP. The use of novel nonionic polymeric thickeners that produce cosmetically useful emulsions of an oil phase and a water phase is described. The thickeners of choice are the urethane dimers of ethoxylated fatty alcohols. These materials were not anticipated to have emulsifying properties.

Also, it has been found that the esters of ethoxylated polyols show similar emulsifying behavior, although their uses are limited by their inherent susceptibility towards hydrolysis. Further, many of the emulsions produced with these emulsifiers have a dilatant or shear thickening rheology that is unusual and has unique cosmetic applications.


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Finally, many of the emulsions, especially the high internal phase ones, have a characteristic 'ring' or vibration that is apparent when their container is tapped. This is a characteristic of so called 'microemulsions' that has not been observed in conventional appearing, white albeit dilatant emulsions. It is an additional object of the present invention to provide shear thickening dilatancy emulsions. What is clamed is: 1. An emulsion composition comprising: i. Each R is independently a C 15 -C 2I alkyl or alkene group; and. Each R' is independently a C 16 -C 22 alkyl or alkene group; iv.

There composition according to claim lor 2 wherein said emulsifier is a compound according to formula El and wherein z is 75 or The composition according to any of claims wherein R is an alkyl group. The composition according to any of claims wherein R' is an alkyl group. The composition according to any of claims wherein R and R' are both alkyl groups.

The composition according to any of claims wherein R is a C 17 alkyl group. The composition according to any of claims wherein R' is a Ci 8 alkyl group. The composition according to any of claims wherein R is a Ci 7 alkyl group and R' is a Ci 8 alkyl group. The composition according to any of claims wherein said emulsifier is a compound according to formula II or HI and R and R' are both alkyl groups.

Food Emulsifier Application

The composition according to any of claims wherein said solvent is selected from the group consisting of ethoxydiglycol, propylene glycol, glycerine, butylene glycol, methylpropane diol, hexylene glycol, sorbitol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol and mixtures thereof. The composition according to any of claims wherein said solvent is ethanol, glycerine, propylene glycol, butylene glycol, MPdiol or sorbitol.

The composition according to any of claims wherein said oil is selected from the group consisting of polar and non-polar oils. The composition according to any of claims wherein said oil is selected from the group consisting of mineral oil, petrolatum and mixtures, thereof. The composition according to any of claims wherein said oil is a glyceride ester. The composition according to any of claims wherein said solvent is a hydrotrope. The composition according to any of claims further comprising at least one component selected from the group consisting of talc, silica, alumina, pigments, solid organic polymers, waxes and mixtures thereof.

A composition according to any of claims wherein said composition exhibits dilatancy properties. Each R is independently a Ci 5 -C 21 alkyl or alkene group; and. Each R' is independently a Ci 6 -C 22 alkyl or alkene group;. The method according to claim 23 wherein said method comprises adding to said mixture in step i an amount of a solvent comprising about 0. The method according to claim 23 or 24 wherein said method comprises adding to said mixture in step i an amount of a secondary emulsifier in an effective amount ranging from about 0. The method according to any of claims wherein said mixing step iii occurs at a temperature of at least about 75 0 C.

How Emulsifiers and Stabilizers Work

The method according to any of claims wherein said steps i, ii or iii occur at a temperature of about 8O 0 C to about 0 C. The method according to any of claims wherein said steps i, ii and iii all occur at a temperature of about 8O 0 C to about 0 C. The method according to any of claims wherein said emulsion exhibits dilatancy properties. USP true How can emulsifiers help? Ice cream with emulsifiers gains: Heat Shock stability Creaminess and body Foam stability Stand-up properties Melting resistance. Provide optimum fat globular membrane composition Ensure protein desorption from fat globule surface Squeeze liquid fat out of fat globules Agglomerate fat globules Construct a 3D network for extra stability.

The image below shows how propylene glycol monostearate PGMS emulsifier maintains ice crystal size despite fluctuating transport and storage temperatures. What are stabilisers? In ice cream production, stabilisers play many roles, supporting: Storage stability Control over ice crystal growth Reduced risk of shrinkage Improved melting resistance Modified sensory properties Stronger stand-up properties.