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Having this knowledge and understanding can empower healthcare providers with the ability to better treat and serve their patients. Developing a connection and understanding of a patient's moral agent helps enhance the care provided to the patient. Without this connection or understanding, patients can be at risk of becoming "faceless units of work" and being looked at as a "set of medical conditions" as opposed to the storied and spiritual beings that they are.
Bioethics in the realm of Islam differs from Western bioethics, but they share some similar perspectives viewpoints as well. Western bioethics is focused around rights, especially individual rights. Islamic bioethics focuses more on religious duties and obligations, such as seeking treatment and preserving life. These influences essentially make it an extension of Shariah or Islamic Law. In Islamic Bioethics, passages from the Qur'an are often used to validate various medical practices. For example, a passage from the Qur'an states "whosoever killeth a human being … it shall be as if he had killed all humankind, and whosoever saveth the life of one, it shall be as if he saved the life of all humankind.
A high value and worth is placed on human life in Islam, and in turn human life is deeply valued in the practice of Islamic bioethics as well. Muslims believe all human life, even one of poor quality, needs to be given appreciation and must be cared for and conserved. In an effort to react to new technological and medical advancements, informed Islamic jurists regularly will hold conferences to discuss new bioethical issues and come to an agreement on where they stand on the issue from an Islamic perspective.
This allows Islamic bioethics to stay pliable and responsive to new advancements in medicine. There is much diversity among Muslims varying from country to country, and the different degrees to which they adhere by Shariah. The Organization of Islamic Conferences Islamic Fiqh Academy OIC-IFA holds the viewpoint that brain death is equivalent to cardiopulmonary death, and acknowledge brain death in an individual as the individual being deceased. On the contrary, the Islamic Organization of Medical Sciences IOMS states that brain is an "intermediate state between life and death" and do not acknowledge a brain dead individual as being deceased.
Like with most other situations, Islamic bioethicists look to the Qur'an and religious leaders regarding their outlook on reproduction and abortion. It is firmly believed that reproduction of a human child can only be proper and legitimate via marriage. This does not mean that a child can only be reproduced via sexual intercourse between a married couple, but that the only proper and legitimate way to have a child is when it is an act between husband and wife. It is okay for a married couple to have a child artificially and from techniques using modern biotechnology as opposed to sexual intercourse, but to do this out of the context of marriage would be deemed immoral.
Islamic bioethics is strongly against abortion and strictly prohibits it. The IOMS states that "from the moment a zygote settles inside a woman's body, it deserves a unanimously recognized degree of respect. Gene therapy involves ethics, because scientists are making changes to genes, the building blocks of the human body. For example, gene therapy can treat hematopoetic disease. It is unknown how this type of gene therapy affects long-term human development. In the United States, federal funding cannot be used to research germline gene therapy.
Bioethics is taught in courses at the undergraduate and graduate level in different academic disciplines or programs, such as Philosophy, Medicine, Law, Social Sciences. It has become a requirement for professional accreditation in many health professional programs Medicine, Nursing, Rehabilitation , to have obligatory training in ethics e. Every medical school in Canada teaches bioethics so that students can gain an understanding of biomedical ethics and use the knowledge gained in their future careers to provide better patient care.
Canadian residency training programs are required to teach bioethics as it is one of the conditions of accreditation, and is a requirement by the College of Family Physicians of Canada and by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.
As a study, bioethics has also drawn criticism. For instance, Paul Farmer noted that bioethics tends to focus its attention on problems that arise from "too much care" for patients in industrialized nations, while giving little or no attention to the ethical problem of too little care for the poor.
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Additionally, bioethics has been condemned for its lack of diversity in thought, particularly with regards to race. Even as the field has grown to include the areas of public opinion, policymaking, and medical decisions, little to no academic writing has been authored concerning the intersection between race- especially the cultural values imbued in that construct- and bioethical literature. John Hoberman illustrates this in a critique, in which he points out that bioethicists have been traditionally resistant to expanding their discourse to include sociological and historically relevant applications.
However, differing views on bioethics' lack of diversity of thought and social inclusivity have also been advanced. Areas of health sciences that are the subject of published, peer-reviewed bioethical analysis include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the discipline. For the journal, see Bioethics journal.
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Main article: Medical ethics. American Reference Books Annual, Volume Libraries Unlimited. Fritz Jahr's concept of bioethics. Kennedy Inst Ethics J.
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Biological Research Santiago. Revisiting the beginning of bioethics: The contributions of Fritz Jahr Perspect Biol Med , Sum, — Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. Developing World Bioethics. Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 21 December Synthetic Biology.
New Jersey: World Scientific. Archived PDF from the original on The American Journal of Bioethics. Archived from the original on Retrieved Cornell University. Archived from the original on 17 June Journal of General Internal Medicine. Michel Weber and Will Desmond eds. The Algebra of Metaphysics. Constantine B. Basics of Bioethics and Safety. Nova Knyha. Journal of Philosophy of Life. Chinese bioethics". Journal of Religion and Health. Avicenna Journal of Medicine.
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. Islamic bioethics". Whosoever killeth a human being … it shall be as if he had killed all humankind, and whosoever saveth the life of one, it shall be as if he saved the life of all humankind. Asian Bioethics Review. May 26, MD Magazine. Teaching bioethics in the clinical setting". Pathologies of Power. The Hastings Center Report. Tampere: Tampere University Press.
Research participant rights. Beneficence Justice Respect for persons Privacy for research participants Right to withdraw Return of results Informed consent. Clinical research Biobank Social research. Research ethics Medical ethics Bioethics Clinical research ethics Biobank ethics. Ethics committee Institutional review board Data monitoring committee Community advisory board. The main contribution of Disabilities in Islamic Law is that it focuses on people with disabilities and depicts the place and status that Islamic law has assigned to them, as well as how the law envisions their participation in religious, social, and communal life.
All in all, the laws concerning people with disabilities demonstrate a very advanced social outlook, to judge from the considerations and arguments of the Muslim jurists. Scholars of Islamic law, medicine and ethics, Islamic studies, sociology, social work, and law, and anyone interested in comparative research of people with disabilities in various cultures and religions, will find an abundance of helpful information in the book. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support?
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